Head & neck cancer


Head and neck cancer is a malignancy of cancer cells that develop around the tissues and organs of the head and neck. This area includes cancer of the larynx (vocal cords), throat, lips, mouth, nose, sinuses, and salivary glands. Which includes head and neck cancer including nasopharyngeal cancer, laryngeal cancer and thyroid cancer. 

In the world, head and neck cancer is the No. 5 most common cancer



In Indonesia, nasopharyngeal cancer is one type of cancer that often occurs. It is ranked 5th in the most cancer cases (Globocan data 2018).

Nasopharyngeal cancer is cell malignancy that appears in the nasopharyngeal area, namely the throat and back of the nose area.


factors that increase the risk of developing nasoring cancer, namely:

  • Consumption of preserved food
  • Epstein-Barr Virus Infection
  • Family history of cancer
  • Mongoloid race is more susceptible
  • The age of most patients is 50-60 years


Be aware of the following symptoms for nasopharyngeal cancer:

  • The nose is often blocked
  • Repeated nosebleeds
  • The ears feel closed and ringing
  • Severe headache
  • Double view
  • A lump appeared in the neck


Nasopharyngeal cancer treatment

Nasopharyngeal cancer therapy includes radiation, chemotherapy, a combination of chemotherapy and radiation, and is supported by medical rehabilitation, evaluation of nutritional intake, and symptomatic therapy according to symptoms that arise.



Laryngeal cancer is a malignancy of cancer cells that appear in the larynx area, which is the base of the tongue and trachea. In this area there are also vocal cords.

The main factors that increase the risk of developing laryngeal cancer are smoking and alcohol consumption.


Symptoms of laryngeal cancer:

If symptoms occur as below you immediately see a doctor:

  • Pain in the throat
  • Difficult and painful swallowing
  • A change of voice (usually the voice becomes hoarse)
  • A lump appeared in the neck

Laryngeal cancer treatment

Treatment for laryngeal cancer depends on the stage and condition of the patient. Usually the treatment includes:

  • Operation
  • Radiation
  • Chemotherapy



Thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the lower neck. The function of the thyroid is producing hormones that are important for the body’s metabolism.

You are said to have thyroid cancer if there is uncontrolled growth of thyroid cells that turn into malignant cells.


Diagnosis of thyroid cancer

If suspicion is found through a physical examination, then the doctor will generally conduct laboratory tests on thyroid hormone, ultrasound and thyroid prints.

The diagnosis of thyroid cancer is usually done biopsy

Thyroid cancer generally grows slowly and if found at an early stage can be cured



Source: Head and Neck brochure from the KPKN and the Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia