Cervical cancer

CERVICAL CANCER

Cervical cancer is cancer that occurs in the cervical area or cervix. This cancer is the No.2 cancer that most occurs in women in the world.

Every 2 minutes, a woman dies from cervical cancer

Indonesia ranks 3rd in cervical cancer worldwide (Globocan 2018). In Indonesia, cervical cancer is the No. 1 Cancer Killer for Indonesian women.

Every 1 hour, an Indonesian woman dies from cervical cancer

 

Why? Because 50% of patients who come to the medical are already in the advanced stage (stage IIIB) (INASGO 2018 data)

 

Causes of cervical cancer

99.7% of cervical cancers caused by oncogenic HPV are known to be oncogenic sub-types of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus), especially sub types 16 and 18.

HPV 16 & 18 are the main cause in 70% of cervical cancer cases in the world

Who is at risk of cervical cancer?

 

Risk factors for cervical cancer include:

  • Sexual activity at a young age
  • Having sex with a multipartner
  • Smoke
  • Having many children
  • Low socioeconomic
  • Use of birth control pills (with negative or positive HPV)
  • Sexually transmitted disease
  • Immune disorders, specifically Vit A, C and E deficiency.

 

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer

In general, cervical cancer has no / no symptoms at an early stage. Certain symptoms begin to appear when cancer has invaded the body. Be aware and immediately do a medical examination, if you experience the following symptoms:

  • Vaginal bleeding, especially after intercourse
  • Leucorrhoea smells bad, mixed with blood
  • Pelvic pain
  • Can’t urinate

 

URGENT! Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

Cancer seedlings invading the cervix do not occur suddenly. Over a long period of time from the development of abnormal cells (not necessarily cancer) in the cervical area to become cancer cells (3-17 years). Therefore cervical cancer is actually the most preventable cancer not suffered at an advanced stage. However, for that you must routinely do early detection.

The benefit is that this cancer is found at the stage of the disease before it is severe. Moreover, the risk of cervical cancer is 5 times higher in women who are not screened.

 

Prevent HPV Vaccination

Early detection does not prevent HPV infection. Every woman at risk of contracting HPV causes cervical cancer. An estimated 50-80% of sexually active women experience HPV infection in their lives unnoticed. Although 90% of infections can disappear with the strength of the immune system.

Better prevent than to cure, is not it? For that, you need self protection from cancer through HPV vaccination. HPV vaccine is effective in preventing oncogenic HPV infections types 16 and 18 which are the types that cause cervical cancer. HPV vaccines types 16 & 18 have the potential to prevent more than 70% of cervical cancer cases.

 

Who can do the HPV vaccine?

  • HPV vaccine is intended for women aged 10 – 55 (guidelines on the Indonesian Oncology and Gynecology Association)
  • Schedule of administration: 3 doses (0, 1 and 6 months)

 

Treatment of cervical cancer

Treatment of cervical cancer consists of:

  • Surgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Chemotherapy

 

Source: presentation paper to prevent cervical cancer by examining IVA and about cervical cancer in the Training of Speakers event as a series of WORLD CANCER DAY 2019 organized by KPKN, Ministry of Health RI, RSCM, FKUI

 

 

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